Sunday, November 28, 2010

:: Majid Transliteration - Jawi Cham





"And of His signs are the creation of the Heavens and the Earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge" - arRum 22.

First of all, Majid Transliteration isn’t about the modernization of Cham language. “Majid Transliteration” is a name given to the Huruf Cham in Arabic form. This kind of script is also known as Jawi Cham.

Jawi Cham is being observing by us since more than 20 years ago, which, the range of observation covers all the Muslim villages in An Giang province and Cambodia. We use mostly the Huruf Cham from Cambodia based on some qualities that the Huruf Cham from Vietnam doesn’t has. The Huruf Cham in Vietnam isn’t coincides from one village to another, even if for the same village. We agree that this situation also happens in Cambodia but the significance of the Huruf Cham in Cambodia is that there is a Mufti who will standardize the writing for the whole Cham in Cambodia. If there’s disagreement, well, it’s very slight. Another criteria we go trough is the figure of the hurufs. Example, the Arabians have "د" then "ذ" ..."ر" then “ز” ..”س” “ش” ..and so on. We realize something synchronous in their writing, “the dot”. Logically, most of the dots are at the above. So, for the Akhar Ndak, we choose to use “dal with 3 dots above ” (Cambodia) instead of “dal with a dot below ڑ” (Vietnam). Ooops I forgot to mention, again, Mr Majid is from An Giang. So later on, don’t accuse that Majid Transliteration is developed by the Cambodian Cham just because we use most of their hurufs. Our team is Cham for overall.

We use “huruf ر” instead of "غ" for the Inâ Rak and Takai Krak. Some of the Jahed said Panduranga uses Rrrr (the sound of ر) but Kampong Chanang uses Ghhhh (the sound of غ as in "cô gái"). It is obviously no difference for both Eastern and Western scripts because Cham language is grouped in Melayo Polynesian language. Example, “rup” is “rupa”, "bicar" is "bicara", “drei” is “diri”, "daruai" is "duri", "marai" is "mari", "harei" "hari", "rabung" "rebung", "ribau" "ribu"..ect. Isn't “ر” makes Cham language so similar to the other Malay languages?

We decide to name it Majid Transliteration to differentiate this kind of Jawi Cham from the other Jawi Cham. Many Muslim Cham researchers who conscientious to preserve our language aren't study Cham language from the root, The Akhar Cham in Indic Sanskrit form. We can’t say a word is written correctly unless there’s proof from Cham inscriptions, or another way – set a council. The word ‘baik’ in Cham language can’t be understood by the Chams around An Giang and Cambodia, as they usually use “waik”. Well, ‘baik’ is a standard Cham language. We write “rup” instead of “rub” because there’s no “b” at the end of all Cham words. It’s okay if you can’t read Majid Transliteration, but this is not an excuse for us to stop. We shall continuously keep moving linking with the ancestors for the sake of the forthcoming generations.

Our team is ready and open for any debate and discussion, to create a better script for the Muslim Chams worldwide. We don’t say that Majid Transliteration is the fix one, we shall reorganize if there are logic and justified points. Anybody is welcomed, not excluded the Balamons.

Last but not least, let us examine this simple phrase:

Cam: “Parandap hagait krung njep, panjep hagait krung randap”.

Melayu: “Biasakan yang betul, betulkan yang biasa”.

English: “Habituate right things, do rightly habitual things”.

Anything, please leave your comment. Thank you for your precious time, great day!

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Awwalanya, Transliterasi Majid bukanlah berkaitan dengan modenisasi Bahasa Cam. “Transliterasi Majid” adalah nama yang diberi kepada Huruf Cam di dalam bentuk hijaiah. Skrip jenis ini juga dikenali sebagai Jawi Cam.

Pihak kami telah mengamati Jawi Cam sejak 20 tahun lalu di mana kawasan kajian meliputi keseluruhan perkampungan orang Islam di wilayah An Giang dan Kemboja. Kami menggunakan kebanyakan Huruf Cam dari Kemboja berdasarkan beberapa kualiti yang tidak didapati di dalam Huruf Cam dari Vietnam. Huruf Cam di Vietnam tidaklah sepakat seperti mana Huruf Cam di Kemboja, yang mana perbezaan ini ketara dapat dilihat dari satu kampung ke kampung yang lain. Kami juga bersetuju bahawa keadaan ini turut berlaku di Kemboja namun di Kemboja terdapat seorang ketua agama yakni Mufti yang berusaha menyeragamkan ejaan dan bentuk huruf bagi keseluruhan Negara Kemboja. Jika ya pun ada perselisihan, kami kira, ia amatlah sedikit. Satu lagi ciri yang kami amati ialah bentuk huruf. Contohnya, orang Arab mempunyai huruf ‘dal’ kemudian ‘dzal’, ‘ro’ ‘zai’, ‘sin’ ‘shin’ dan seterusnya. Kami menyedari sesuatu yang seragam di dalam penulisan mereka, “titik”. Logiknya, kebanyakan titik bagi huruf mereka berada di atas huruf, maka untuk Akhar Ndak kami memilih untuk menggunakan “dal dengan tiga titik di atas” (Kemboja) berbanding “dal dengan satu titik di bawah” (Vietnam). Oh lupa, sekali lagi suka saya nyatakan di sini bahawa Encik Majid berasal dari An Giang. Maka, di kemudian hari, janganlah menuduh bahawa Transliterasi Majid dihasilkan oleh orang Cam Kemboja hanya kerana kami menggunakan kebanyakan huruf dari sana. Kumpulan kami ialah Cam secara keseluruhan.

Kami menggunakan huruf ‘ro’ bagi menggantikan ‘ghain’ untuk Inâ Rak dan Takai Krak. Sebahagian daripada golongan Jahed mengatakan bahawa Panduranga menggunakan bunyi Rrrr manakala Kampong Chnang menggunakan bunyi Ghhh (Viet: "cô gái"). Ia terang-terang tidak ada perbezaan bagi kedua-dua skrip Eastern dan Western kerana Bahasa Cam tergolong di dalam kumpulan Melayo Polynesian. Contoh, ‘rup’ ialah ‘rupa’…’bicar’ ialah ‘bicara’…’drei’ ialah ‘diri’,,,’daruai’ ‘duri’…’marai’ ‘mari’…’harei’ ‘hari’…’ rabung’ ‘rebung’…’ribau’ ’ribu’…dll. Bukankah ‘ro’ menjadikan Bahasa Cam begitu mirip dengan bahasa-bahasa Melayu yang lain?

Kami memutuskan untuk menamakannya Transliterasi Majid bagi membezakan Jawi Cam jenis ini dengan mana-mana Jawi Cam yang lain. Kebanyakan orang Cam Islam yang bertungkus-lumus untuk mengekalkan bahasa kita tidak mengkaji bahasa Cam dari asas iaitu Akhar Cam dalam bentuk Sanskrit. Kita tak boleh nak kata satu-satu perkataan itu dieja dengan betul melainkan ada bukti dari inskripsi kuno atau dengan alternatif lain – tubuhkan Majlis Syura.

Perkataan ‘baik’ di dalam Bahasa Cam tidak dapat difahami oleh orang Cam di sekitar An Giang dan Kemboja, kerana mereka biasanya menggunakan ‘waik’. ‘Baik’ merupakan Bahasa Cam standard yang dijumpai di dalam manuskrip, yang bermaksud ‘-lah’ di dalam Bahasa Melayu …’bac baik’…’bacalah’ …(=bac nao, bac waik, bac maik). Kami menulis ‘rup’ tetapi tidak ‘rub’ kerana di dalam Bahasa Cam tidak ada ‘ba mati’. Jika kita ingin mematikan huruf ‘ba’ kita perlu menggunakan huruf ‘pa’. Tidak mengapa jika anda tidak mampu membaca Transliterasi Majid tetapi ini bukanlah satu alasan untuk kami berhenti. Kami akan terus bergerak menerokai ilmu dan waris dari zaman silam demi kepentingan generasi akan datang.

Kumpulan kami bersedia dan terbuka untuk sebarang debat dan perbincangan, bagi menghasilkan skrip yang lebih baik demi kemuafakatan orang Cam Islam di seluruh dunia. Kami tidak mengatakan bahawa Transliterasi Majid adalah tetap dan tidak boleh dilakukan pindaan, kami akan menyusun semula sekiranya terdapat pandangan yang logik dan bernas. Semua orang adalah dialu-alukan, tidak terkecuali yang Balamon.

Akhir kata, marilah kita bersama-sama menhayati ungakapan mudah ini:

Cam: “Parandap hagait krung njep, panjep hagait krung randap”.

Melayu: “Biasakan yang betul, betulkan yang biasa”.

English: “Habituate right things, do rightly habitual things”.

Apa jua pandangan, sila tinggalkan komen anda. Terima kasih untuk masa anda, great day!

Friday, June 4, 2010

Wednesday, April 7, 2010

:: Kamus Cam - Melayu

21st March 2010
video





Kamus Cam-Melayu is an effort to re-organize the phonology, grammar and the lexicons of Cham language , to lift up the dignity of Cham language which had been being one of the language of knowledge around the Malay Archipelago long time ago.


KAMUS CAM-MELAYU; Jawi-Rumi (INÂLANG CAM-MELAYU; Huruf Cam – Rumi Cam)

Ra-rumiak: Amâ Nai

Jawi Cham Consultor: Sohibus Somahah Okhna Hj. Kamaruddin Yusuf (Mufti of Cambodia)

Jawi Melayu Consultor: al-Ameen Serve Holdings Private Limited.

Board of Editors: al-Ameen Serve Holdings Private Limited.

Jawi Cham Font Creator: Adei Nai

Publisher: al-Ameen Serve Holdings Private Limited.


:: Bibliography:

1) Sources and references of the entries:

- Nai Mai Mâng Makah by Po Dharma, G. Moussay, Abd Karim (published)

- Manuscript Sah Sakei (in progress)

- Manuscript Nai Mahrut (in progress)

- Other manuscripts:

Ms Cam 35 – pg 19-35

Ms Cam 37 (23) – pg 201-206

Ms Cam 37 (32) – pg 282-286

Ms Cam 39 (9) – pg 189-210

Ms Cam 39 (24) – pg 324-343

Ms Cam 39 (36) – pg 475-534

Ms Cam 39 (37) – pg 535-539

Ms Cam 39 (38) – pg 540-546

Some of the examples given are qoated from some manuscripts, which are shown below the entries.


2) Meaning and Translation:

- Dictionnaire Cam – Francais by Etienne Aymonier.

- Dictionnaire Cam – Vietnamien – Francais by Gerrard Moussay.

- Kamus Arab – Melayu by Idris al-Marbawi.

- Kamus Perancis – Melayu by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Malaysia.

- Kamus Dewan Third Edition by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Malaysia.


3) Grammar - Tatabahasa DewanThird Edition:

The grammar of Cham language is detected clearly when we do the comparison between the grammar of Melayu-Cam, for instances:

- Derived Word:

~ te = ter…..Paku nan tebuic = Paku itu tercabut.

~ pa = me…..Paraih ketak = Menoreh getah.

~ ma = me…..Manaok nyu kieng masuh malahuei di angaok urang Islam = Mereka hendak melancarkan peperangan ke atas orang Islam.

- Compound Word:

~ maluk maler; bimaluk maler = campur aduk; bercampur aduk.

~ khat ala; pekhat ala = ganti rugi; mengganti rugi.

- Preposition (some):

~ di = di…..Hâ bac di labik nan hadom thun paje? = Anda belajar di situ sudah berapa tahun?

~ kala = bagi…..Nyu mai kala labik halun = Dia datang bagi menggantikan saya.

~ ka (tok) = untuk…..Gru mebiai ka anâk saih luak aer = Guru bercakap untuk anak murid mengerti.

~ ka = kepada…..Harak nan dahlak hu payua ka tuan blaoh = Surat itu saya sudah mengirim kepada tuan.

~ mâng = dari…..Nai mai mâng Makkah = Tuan puteri mai dari Makkah.

~ pak = pada…..Pak kau dunia ni labik pacheh pachai min = padaku dunia ini tempat berhibur sahaja.

~ dalam = dalam…..Nyu joy dalam panaik nan= dia pandai dalam bidang itu.


:: The characteristics & purposes of the dictionary:

1) Focusing on the accurate usage of Cam language in Arabic form; Huruf Cam form around the world.

2) User guidance – the way how to spell words based on Akhar Cam.

3) Akhar Cam applied is the Eastern Cam Script; Vietnamese Cam form.

4) Rumi Cam applied is based on the 'Ecole Française d'Extrème Orient (EFEO) system.

4) Words are arranged in alphabetical order, with the root words, plus derived words based on the manuscripts referred.

5) To educate Cham people how beautiful Cham Language is, to remind Cham people what the ancestors have said, to help to preserve Cham language and to prevent from a severe contamination.

6) Examples given are based onCham and Malay idioms, historical villages and places and events in Campa, daily informal speech of the Chams in the dialects around Panduranga-Angiang-Cambodia. Anyway, the serious slang like "nao ~ niao..tada ~ tadia..sadang(saradang) ~ sadiang --- habar ~ haban..war ~ wan" isn't applied. The dictionary also talks about Islam and the way the Chams earn for the living. In addition, it also states some of the accommodations in Malaysia, but yet it hasn’t talk about the way the Chams in Malaysia struggle for the living.


:: Biodata of the Organizer:

“If I have to move alone, I shall still moving” – Amâ Nai.

He is a pious Muslim who was born in Palei Kaoh Kabuak, Angiang, Vietnam. His mother is Cham while his father is Chinese. Had been examining the Vietnamese Cham script for almost 3 decades, and the Cambodian Cham script for nearly 20 years. He speaks fluently in Cham language; (covering the diaclects of Panduranga, Chau Ðoc, and Cambodia), Vietnamese language, Malay language, Khmer language, and a little bit Arabic language.


~ My very appreciation to the organizer of the book, may Allah always bless U.

Friday, February 12, 2010

:: Boredom!